Second Year 99/00
Clinical Optometry 2
Vision/Visual Acuity testing

Learning objectives


The aim of this practical is to introduce you to several different techniques that can be used to determine distance and near vision/visual acuity. The former is measured without, and the latter with refractive compensation.

Distance vision/visual acuity will be determined using Snellen, Bailey Lovie no. 5 logMAR, Keeler Crowded and Uncrowded Cards, Kay Picture Test and the Cardiff Acuity Cards. Near vision/visual acuity will be determined using the Faculty of Ophthalmologists’ near acuity book, Jaeger near acuity book, the Bailey Lovie near word card and the MacClure reading book.

Practical assessment

Because of time constraints, for all tests obtain binocular results only. In the real world it is important to take monocular and binocular results.

Distance charts

Working in pairs measure your partner’s distance vision, or visual acuity if they need refractive correction, using the following methods:

Near charts

Using the Faculty of Ophthalmologists’, Jaeger, MacClure Reading chart and the Bailey Lovie word cards note the near vision/visual acuity and the working distance comfortable for the observer. Use an over the shoulder Anglepoise lamp to provide even illumination illumination.